Perry J Clark, PhD
School Psychologist Emeritus
Akron Public Schools
In a 1942 issue of the Journal of Consulting Psychology, Symonds (1942) spoke of the term “school psychologist” as being about twenty years old. The psychologist was described as being brought into the schools to give Binet tests and group intelligence tests developed from those used in the first World War. It mentions that the first use of the term “school psychologist” probably appeared in the published literature in 1923. Dr. Arnold Gessell said of his own appointment as a school psychologist, “In 1915, the Connecticut State Board of Education appointed a School Psychologist to make mental examinations of…children in rural, village, and urban schools, and to devise methods for their better care in the public schools. Connecticut was the first state of the Union to create a position of this kind.” (Cutts, 1955, p 23-24).
School psychological services in Ohio began to evolve during the early 1900’s, although nothing was put into law until many years later. Several Ohio school districts established psychological clinics, child guidance clinics, and bureaus of statistics or departments of research that included tests and measurements for evaluating deviant children. These districts were Cincinnati (1911), Cleveland (1916), Martins Ferry (1916), Warren (1919), Akron (1920), Youngstown (1920), and Shaker Heights (1921) (Allen, Baker, & Harris-Kinney, 1985, pp. 13). The close relationship between school psychology and special education in Ohio can be seen from the onset of school psychological services. Ferguson (1956) indicated that the first school psychologist in Ohio was probably employed in 1911 by the Cincinnati Board of Education. “Growth and development of these services continued slowly through the next 20 years and was limited primarily to the major cities of the state” (Bonham & Grover, 1961, p. 1).
Cincinnati and Cleveland were Ohio leaders in establishing school district classes for what was then termed “handicapped children.” For example, classes for deaf children were established in Cincinnati and Cleveland in 1879 and 1893, respectively. In the early 1900’s, classes for students with visual orthopedic, and/or intellectual impairments were established in those two cities. “These districts were concerned primarily with those students who were physically handicapped, academically ‘backward,’ and non-English speaking, along with students whose behavior was serious enough to be brought to the attention of the courts. Although there was great diversity among the early psychological services in these districts, school personnel generally applied scientific methods in evaluating the students for educational programs and regarded psychological examination of children as a function of the schools." (Allen et al., 1985, p. 13).
Bonham and Grover (1961) indicated that the Division of Special Education of the Ohio Department of Education employed a full-time psychologist (P.O. Wagner) to provide consultant and individual child-study services to assist in planning educational programs and instructional services for students with disabilities. The value of this service was quickly recognized and it became increasingly apparent that such services would benefit local school systems.
The period from 1921 to 1944 realized an increase in psychological services in the larger school districts in Ohio even though this was not a reimbursable program. The major emphasis was on testing with many districts using only the Binet to measure intellectual functioning. Testing large numbers of pupils was emphasized. “One rather notorious woman was Dr. Lucky, chief psychologist in the Cleveland Schools from 1917 until 1958. She had studied with Binet in France after earning her doctorate in chemistry. Dr. Lucky was known for her rigid demands, her self-styled short-form Binets, and her ability to give "a Binet a minute" as the myth went. The psychologists on her staff were expected to test an average of 900 children per year (Garwood, 1979).
P.O. Wagner, chief psychologist of the Division of Special Education and Benjamin Stevens, research director for the Ohio Education Association began using the term “child study” and defined it in terms of the function of a school psychologist. They enumerated the functions of a school psychologist as “providing diagnostic services for the handicapped, having knowledge of school organization and operation, providing consultative services, and responding to the mental health needs of the child and family.” (Allen et al., 1985, p. 74). Wagner, who was regarded as the Father of School Psychology in Ohio, was recognized as a role model for school psychologists, and from 1945 until his death in 1958, he emphasized that educationally positive outcomes must be the result of child study. He also encouraged systematic follow-up to children who had undergone child study.
Wagner's concept of the school psychologist’s role was expanded by Raymond A. Horn and Samuel J. Bonham, Jr., who both became chief psychologists and subsequently directors of the Division of Special Education. Through the efforts of Wagner and Stevens, the legislature became convinced of the need for school psychological services. “When Am. S.B. 65 was enacted in 1945, it enabled boards of education to establish and maintain child study services. The term ‘child study’ remains in the law today; however, school psychological services have gradually emerged as the program name” (Allen et al., 1985, p 72). Bonham and Grover (1961) indicated that provisions were also made at this time to establish state standards for child study services and a reimbursement of $750 per year to local school districts for approved child study services was obtained. In 1945-46, 17 units for school psychological services were recognized. This number has risen steadily over the following years: 1954-55 (63.5), 1956-57 (101.7), 1965-66 (295.5), and 1975-76 (786). School psychology units reached their peak in 1982-83 (846.1) (see Appendix A of Allen et al., 1985, for complete data).
Determining the number of units for which local district have been able to receive reimbursement has not remained consistent and appears to have been a topic of much debate. In 1961, units were approved at a rate of one unit for the first 3,000 children in Average Daily Membership and one additional unit for each additional 5,000 children. Bonham and Grover (1961) conceded that a strong argument could be advanced favoring a reduction of the standard to one psychologist for the first 2,000 children and one additional psychologist for each additional 3,000 children. However, in light of the statewide ratio of one psychologist to 7,500 children, the continuing critical shortage of qualified school psychologists, the number of established vacancies that went unfilled each year, and the number of school districts without psychological services, it seemed advisable to delay a reduction of ratio until those problems could be alleviated. The researchers also stated, “At this point, some reservations concerning the ratio of one psychologist to each 800-1,200 children suggested by the Thayer Conference seems to be indicated.”
In 1972, the Ohio Inter-University Council made a recommendation that the ratio of psychologists to students change from one psychologist to 3,000 students to one psychologist to 2,000 students (OSPA Executive Board Meeting minutes, 1972). Mention was also made of a NASP leaflet that recommended one school psychologist for each 500 students (Clancy, 1971). The issue of the ratio of school psychologist to students, as well as the paid internship in school psychology, became an issue in the early 1970’s when a bill introduced by the Educational Committee of the Senate threatened to change the funding for school psychology. In 1974, the Ohio School Psychologists Association’s Legislative Committee sought legislation to reduce the pupil/psychologist ratio (Tucker. 1979).
The issue of psychologist/student ratio was resolved with the revised Rules for the Education of Handicapped Children in 1982, which called for one psychologist for each 2,500 children in Average Daily Attendance. “While legislation for child study was being adopted at the state level, there was action on the national level as well. In 1945, the American Psychological Association established a subdivision for school psychologists. Several psychologists, including Bertha Lucky from Cleveland, contributed significantly to the birth of this unit.” (Allen et al., 1985, p. 75).
The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892. The association included numerous special divisions, many of which were pertinent to school psychology. Division 16, School Psychology, began in 1945 with the approval of the membership committee of the American Psychological Association. A constitution was drafted stating the purpose of the Division 16, while also describing the requirements for membership. Its purposes were: 1) to provide opportunities for professional fellowship and for exchange of professional ideas among school psychologists; 2) to advance the professional status of school psychology; and 3) to promote and maintain high standards of professional service among its members (Magary, 1967, p. 27).
In 1952, Division 16 described the school psychologist as practicing in an educational setting and having skills as both an educator and a clinician. The growth of school psychology during this period became phenomenal (Eiserer, 1963, p. 5) and the psychological community had been unprepared for it (Herron, Green, Guild, Smith & Kantor, 1970). Dunn (1965), for example, indicated that, in 1948, APA Division 16 had a membership of 68 persons. By 1955, the membership in Division 16 had climbed to 348, and by 1963, the membership was 856. Although the number of school psychologists increased, there also was an increasing demand for school psychologists. Additional problems included limited training opportunities for school psychologists and few regulations with regard to the qualifications of school psychological personnel. To address these concerns and to systematize school psychology as a profession, APA Division 16 supported a meeting held in 1954 in the Thayer Hotel in New York City.
Bertha M. Lucky of Cleveland Public Schools was one of 10 persons nominated to plan what was later referred to as the “Thayer Conference.” This event was a 10-day conference that was attended by about 48 professional persons, mostly psychologists (Regen, 1965, p. 6). The proceedings of this conference were contained in the publication School Psychologists at Mid-Century by Norma E. Cutts. The impact of this conference would appear to have influenced school psychology in Ohio and throughout the country.
The conference summary read as follows:
While only the psychologist can perform some of his functions, a large share of his contribution will be in the form of adding to the resources that other school personnel will use. His aim is neither to take over the functions of a classroom teacher nor to have the teacher take over the unique functions of the psychologist.
DEFINITION. The school psychologist is a psychologist with training and experience in education. He uses his specialized knowledge of assessment, learning and interpersonal relationships to assist the school personnel to enrich the experience and growth of all children, and to recognize and deal with exceptional children.
FUNCTIONS. The school psychologist serves in an advisory capacity to school personnel and performs the following functions:
- Measuring and interpreting the intellectual, social, and emotional development of children.
- Identifying exceptional children and collaborating in the planning of appropriate educational and social placements and programs.
- Developing ways to facilitate the learning and adjustment of children.
- Encouraging and initiating research, and helping to utilize research findings for the solution of school problems.
- Diagnosing educational and personal disabilities, and collaborating in the planning of re-educational programs.
LEVELS. Two levels of functioning and training are recommended. The position of school psychologist involves such broad comprehensive preparation at a high level that these responsibilities can be met only with doctoral training or its equivalent. This training should consist of four years of graduate study, one of which should be a year of internship. The position of psychological examiner is considered essential. The training for this position should be a two-year graduate program, of which one-half year should be an internship. Such training should equip the examiner to perform many psychological services. (Cutts, 1955, p. 30-31).
Aside from addressing the role and function, the training and the internship in school psychology, the conference also discusses the “team concept,” which would later become popular in special education and school psychology. “More often the school psychologist’s fellow team members are the school doctor, the school nurse and the school social worker or the school attendance officer — and always the teacher and the principal. Which of the specialists plays a part will vary from case to case, according to the child’s needs and the situation. But the team concept is essentially sound and should always be borne in mind” (Cutts, 1955, p. 81).
In 1958, Division 16 made suggestions for the training of school psychologists, as well as outlining the types of activities to be performed by school psychologists. Further attempts to specify training of school psychologists appeared in the 1963 APA recommendations to state departments of education in regard to certification. (Herron et al., 1970, p. 5).
Ohio School Psychologists Association
Aside from APA Division 16, other organizations had major impact on the development of school psychology in Ohio. Perhaps the most noted of these was the Ohio School Psychologists Association. On June 25, 1943, under the leadership of Dwight Arnold of Kent State University, a group of 11 psychologists met at the Ohio State Faculty Club. This marked the beginning of what is now the Ohio School Psychologists Association. At that first meeting, dues of 25¢ were collected from each member for a grand total of $2.75 (Brief Summary, Meeting of School Psychologist, June 25, 1943). A motion was made at this group’s second meeting Oct. 2-3, that it call itself “School Psychologists of Ohio.” At this meeting it was also decided that meetings would be held semi-annually and a discussion occurred on the “danger in having too large a group” (School Psychologists of Ohio meeting minutes, October 2 & 3, 1943).
Of interest are some excerpts taken from the summary and discussion of the School Psychologists of Ohio, Nov. 15, 1946, meeting:
"Mr. P. O. Wagner gave a brief resume of the legislation which became S.B. 65. He said that the term ‘child study services’ was written into the law for two reasons: 1) it was descriptive, 2) the legislature would accept child study services more readily than 'psychological services.' He also said we are approaching an era when the school psychologist will be a cog in every school system.
"Dr. Crowley was asked to tell the functions of the school psychologist in her situation. The following list gives some idea of her work:
- Testing of individual problems referred.
- Asked about and conferred with concerning achievement tests.
- The giving of preschool tests and tests for 16-year-olds who want to go to work and have not completed seventh grade.
- Working toward adequate program for average children in school.”
“Mr. Wagner expressed his belief that the school psychologist should have a part in building the curriculum and asked for statements from various ones. Mr. Allen said he knew of no curriculum committee. He confers with principals and casually brings up items in his daily contacts with the superintendent. In Cincinnati, none of the psychologists are on a curriculum committee but they do a little ‘needling.’
“Mr. Perkins commented that many times teachers were experts in knowing their subject but not in knowing the child — this is a place where school psychologists can work.
“Mr. Crowley said they were at a stage where principals were demanding an I.Q.
“Mr. Wagner commented that the school should recognize the child as he is and that the school psychologist should help the parents understand the child’s development.
"Mr. Rosebrook supported the idea that the (slow learning) child would profit from being in school.
“Mrs. Boesel related their experiences in Toledo. They have decided that a child cannot be excluded if he has a mental age of 5 years or an I.Q. of 85. If he is not progressing, a conference is held with the parent to help him accept (the idea of) the child spending two years in the first grade.
“Miss Appledoorm opened the discussion of the group testing program… There was some discussion as to who should give the tests. It was brought out that some teachers feel the tests measure their teaching ability, therefore they prepare their children for the tests.
“Miss Derrer told of the ‘in-service’ training program used in Columbus in preparing teachers to give group tests.
“Dr. Whiteside reported on the Division of School Psychologists of the A.P.A. There is a possibility of the section being discontinued.
“In regard to the certification of school psychologists, Mr. Bowers has said that, in the near future, he proposes to go over standards for teacher certification. When that time comes he will be glad to consider school psychologists.
“A collection ($8.85) was taken to cover the expenses of the meeting.” (S.P.O. meeting minutes, November 15, 1946).
In 1946, a committee of university trainers, psychologists, visiting teachers, counselors and other pupil personnel specialists developed recommendations for school psychology. This committee's recommendation was that school psychology training should have a strong educational orientation to assure appropriate placement of children and realistic instruction. “The committee’s recommendations were accepted by the Ohio Department of Education's Division of Teachers Education and Certification and became the training pattern for the universities. Certification requirements for psychologists included a master’s degree, a teaching certificate, one year of teaching in any field, and 300 clock hours of supervised experience. At that time, the psychologist was often the highest trained person in the school” (Allen et al., 1985, p. 75).
The School Psychologists of Ohio began a newsletter which was titled, not surprisingly, School Psychologists of Ohio Newsletter. The first issue appeared in the winter of 1949. The title changed in November of 1960 to The School Psychologist. In 1963, the School Psychologists of Ohio became the Ohio School Psychologists Association and dues increased $2 to a total of $6. A new constitution was accepted, as well (S.P.O. Minutes of the Annual Meeting, May 4, 1963).
In 1949, School Psychologists of Ohio (SPO) voted in favor of affiliating with the Ohio Psychological Association by a 35-to-2 margin, although it is unclear whether this occurred (Garwood, 1979). In the late 1940’s, discussion continued regarding improvements to the training of school psychologists. The concept of an internship was developed at this time. Additional efforts to improve the training of school psychologists was the organization in 1956 of the Inter-University Council on School Psychology (IUC). In conjunction with the Division of Special Education, this council studied pre-service and in-service problems. “From 1959 to the present, the council, the division, and the Ohio School Psychologists Association have jointly sponsored annual intern conferences which provide trainees with a basic understanding of the role of the school psychologist and of state and local policies and procedures” (Allen et al., 1985, p. 76).
Aside from sponsoring conferences for interns, the Ohio School Psychologists Association has sponsored workshops for its membership as a means of advancing the knowledge, skills and training of school psychologists. “The purpose of the Ohio School Psychologists Association is to study and share ideas, methods and research findings which will promote construction action in meeting the needs of all children and youth through the development of appropriate psychological services in the schools of Ohio; to encourage publication of books and articles contributing to the enhancement of knowledge within the field of school psychology; and to provide for the professional growth of individual members through continuing education programs and seminars” (unpublished manuscript, Ohio School Psychologists Association).
Some of the speakers that have presented programs to OSPA members were as follows: Nancy Bayley and Elizabeth Koppitz (1958), Erik Erickson (1964), Rudolf Dreikurs (1966), Robert Glasser (1969), Joseph Jastak (1970), and Donald Michenbaum (1986).
The Ohio School Psychologists Association grew from its initial eleven members in 1943 to 800 members in 1977. OSPA’s membership had considerable impact on the development of psychological services in schools. OSPA played a role in developing certification and licensing standards, developing the internship program and in establishing the National Association of School Psychologists.
By 1952, there was discussion between OPA and SPO to submit legislation for the certification of psychologists. That discussion continued for several years and, around 1958, OPA did submit a proposal exempting school psychologists. Donald Wonderly (1960) referred to the “obnoxious Passages” in this bill which did not pass in the Ohio legislature. As he noted, “The struggle for certification became the battle for licensure, which continued until 1972 when the law creating the State Board of Psychology was finally passed” (The School Psychologist, Sept. 1975, p. 5). “The two professional associations were often at loggerheads through those years, but mutual agreement was achieved with the dual-level licensing that now exists” (Garwood, 1979). Licensing at the doctoral level for psychologists and at the master’s level for school psychologists has been provided by the seven-member State Board of Psychology. Two of these members represent the profession of school psychology.
In 1973, a School Psychology Licensing Committee, appointed by the State Board of Psychology began development of an exam for those school psychologists not eligible for licensing under the “grandfather clause.” By 1974, the State Licensing Board had become a fact of life for school psychologists.
A weakness in the school psychology training program was the requirement for the 300 clock hours of supervised experience. It was felt that this requirement did not sufficiently prepare the school psychologist for the complex problems encountered in the schools. To improve the training program, the concept of a planned internship was introduced by P.O. Wagner in the late 1940's and was first implemented by John Honocks and Harold Phelps of the Ohio State University (Allen et al., 1985, p. 75). Mention was made of an Akron intern, Miss Janet Rafferty, in early SPO meeting minutes (January 16, 1948). “Various experimental internships were carried out over a 10-year period, with the first intern officially recognized by the Division of Special Education in Cleveland Heights during the 1954-55 school year” (Allen et al., 1985, p. 75). “In 1960, a year’s internship replaced the 300 clock hours previously required (Tucker, 1979).
A major issue in planning the internship was whether it should be a paid experience. Raymond A. Horn worked with the IUC-SP on this issue. Subsequently, the paid internship was approved by the Ohio Department of Education on an experimental basis in selected sites. The first permanent internship site was established in Montgomery County in 1958. This was reportedly the first full-time reimbursed school psychology internship in the nation. Standards for internship were adopted in 1960, and 13 interns were approved for the 1960-61 school year (Allen et al., 1985, p. 76). The number of reimbursed internships increased rather steadily and appear to have peaked at 140 during the 1972-73 and 1981-82 school years (Allen et al., 1985, p. 189). Horn was helpful in providing the intern pay as equal to the teaching salary schedule (Garwood, 1979).
In 1968, OSPA worked with the State Department to prepare guidelines for the internship that would insure uniform quality throughout the state (Garwood, 1979). Concern was also raised in 1968 regarding “the number of interns who do not become school psychologists. Considering the money spent on their education, it is possible that a commitment of at least one year in Ohio should be imposed” (OSPA Executive Board Meeting Minutes, 1968).
In 1969, the Ohio Inter-University Council on School Psychology completed their revision of The Internship Program in School Psychology, a manual for university trainers and field supervisors. This publication provides in detail the organization and administration of the school psychology internship, including specific goals. It also specifies the responsibilities of the intern, the university, the school district and the Division of Special Education. In 1971, OSPA’s Executive Board prepared to fight a change in funding that threatened to put an end to the funding of internships. “Mike Chrin wrote a well-reasoned defense of the school psychologist’s value to the schools, documenting the need for paid interns” (Tucker, 1979).
National Association of School Psychologists
On March 21 and 22, 1968, 33 participants from 11 states met in Columbus, Ohio, to lay the groundwork for the National Association of School Psychologists. This was the result of a need for school psychologists to develop a more adequate definition of their profession, to obtain strong professional identity at the national level, to provide more effective means of communication throughout the country, and to establish clear and strong representation for legislative action. At that time, a motion was carried to form a committee to establish this organization. Plans were established to begin compiling a mailing list of school psychologists in all 50 states, as well as planning a national program to be held in Chicago in March 1969. This conference, however, was held in St. Louis. Ohioans Polly Alexander and Janko Kovacevich were named temporary chairman and executive secretary, respectively. (The School Psychologist, Spring, 1968).
NASP gained momentum quickly and Polly Alexander reported in The School Psychologist (Fall, 1968) that the NASP Committee was communicating with more than 1,000 professionals who were “interested in exploring the possibility of organizing NASP now.” By comparison, Division 16 of APA had about 1,400 members, according to Polly Alexander. NASP was founded in 1969 with Ohioans Polly Alexander as its first President and Bill Farling, Executive Secretary (Tucker, 1979). In its first year of operation, one-third of NASP’s members were from Ohio.
Journal of School Psychology
At an SPO Executive Board meeting in 1961, Donald C. Smith of The Ohio State University presented proposals concerning a Journal of School Psychology, to be published by the Ohio Division of Special Education, with editorship probably coming from Ohio State University staff members. Initially it was felt that the valuable research completed by interns, as well as other research, could be made available through this publication. Division 16 of APA, it was reported, had studied the need for such a journal a couple of years earlier, and finally dropped the idea (SPO Executive Board Meeting Minutes, 1961).
A questionnaire was then issued by Donald C. Smith to obtain input regarding the content, organization and format of the journal as well as the evaluation of manuscripts (Smith, 1963). Initially, the journal was to be published bi-annually by the Division of Special Education with the first issue appearing in January 1963, according to The School Psychologist (May, 1962). The editorial staff agreed to publish acceptable manuscripts whether or not they originated in Ohio. The Journal of School Psychology is recognized as the first journal for school psychologists in the nation (Allen et al., 1985). After the first issue of The Journal of School Psychology was published, a corporation was established to provide funds to continue its publication. Shares of stock were sold for $50 and individuals could purchase up to five shares.
Public Law 94-142
Allen et al. (1985) identified legislation that had a direct impact on school psychological services. Typically, such laws dealt with the establishment or maintenance of child study services, among other matters. These laws were enacted in 1945, 1955, 1967 and 1973. Equally important would appear to be legislation in 1955 which created the State Board of Education. However, in 1976, H.B. 455 was enacted to establish conformity in Ohio law to P.L. 94-142. The new federal legislation, P.L. 94-142, defined special education as “specially designed instruction, at no cost to parents or guardians, to meet the unique needs of a handicapped child, including classroom instruction, instruction in physical education, home instruction, and instruction in hospitals and institutions.” The definition of a “handicapped child” included intellectual disability, deafness, hearing impairment, vision impairment, speech impairment, seriously emotional disturbance, orthopedically impairment, other health impairment, deaf-blind, “multi-handicapped,” and specific learning disability. P.L. 94-142 provided for children from 3 to 21 years of age who needed special education services, but excluded states from mandatory coverage of this age range where individual state statutes specified otherwise. Ohio law required services to students with disabilities between the ages of 5 and 21 during this period, but permitted school districts to provide programs for students with disabilities below the legal age requirements. Unlike some other federal education laws, P.L. 94-142 did not have an expiration date. Major provisions in the law included free appropriate public education, least restrictive environment, individualized education programs, and due process procedures. (Allen et al., 1985, p. 110)
This author is sincerely grateful to Dr. Janka Kovacevich who provided much of the support and information which made the research possible. A complete and adequate history of school psychological services in Ohio is admittedly an enormous undertaking. Other researchers who had limited their research to OSPA history would likely understand the difficulty with which this task is accomplished. Garwood, for example, referred to her research as an “unofficial” history of OSPA. Tucker, on the other hand, prefaced her research by identifying the person to be contacted in the event of omitted or incorrect information. The sources for my research included a number of published works, as well as a rusted metal box packed full of “history” that was provided by Dr. Janka Kovacevich. Nov. 1, 1967, Ken Hoedt, a professor at The University of Akron and a representative to the Inter-University Council made a recommendation to OSPA’s Executive Board. "Ken told of the attempt by Akron University to preserve the past records of Ohio organizations by keeping them in the Archives. He urged OSPA to turn its records over to the Archives so that a running history of the organization could be kept. The vaults are fire proof and the air conditioning is best for preservation” (OSPA Executive Board meeting minutes, Nov. 1, 1968).
Allen, A. A., Baker, A., & Harris-Kinney, J. (1985). History of special education in Ohio 1803-1985. Ohio Department of Education.
Bonham, S. J., & Grover, E. C. (1961). The history and development of school psychology in Ohio. Ohio Department of Education.
Brief Summary, Meeting of School Psychologists, June 25, 1943.
Clancy, B. (1971). Letter to OSPA members. Ohio School Psychologists Association.
Dunn, J. A. (1963). On the growth of school psychology. Psychology in the Schools, 1, 110-112.
Eiserer, P. E. (1963). The school psychologist. The Center for Applied Research in Education.
Ferguson, D. G. (1956). Duties, training and certification of Ohio school psychologists. Western Reserve University.
Garwood, B. G. (1979) An unofficial history of OSPA. The School Psychologist.
Herron, W. G., Green, M., Guild, M., Smith, A., & Kantor, R. E. (1970). Contemporary School Psychology. Educational Publishers.
Magary, J. F. (1967). School psychological services in theory and practice. Prentice-Hall.
Ohio Inter-University Council on School Psychology. (1969). The internship in school psychology: A manual for university trainers and field supervisors. Ohio Department of Education.
Ohio School Psychologists Association. (1972). Executive board meeting minutes.
Ohio School Psychologists Association. (1968). Executive board meeting minutes.
Ohio School Psychologists Association, The School Psychologist, Spring, 1968.
Ohio School Psychologists Association, The School Psychologist, September, 1972.
Reger, R. (1965). School psychology. Charles C. Thomas.
School Psychologists of Ohio. (1963). Executive board meeting minutes.
School Psychologists of Ohio. (1961). Executive board meeting minutes.
School Psychologists of Ohio. (1943). Executive board meeting minutes.
School Psychologists of Ohio. (1946). Summarization of Discussion. The School Psychologist.
Smith, D. C. (1963). Editor's comments. Journal of School Psychology, 1, 1-4
Smith, D. C. (1961). Proposals concerning a journal of school psychology. Personal communication.
Symonds, P. M. (1942). The school psychologist. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 173-176.
Tucker, P. (1979). OSPA history. The School Psychologist.
Wonderly, D. M. (1960). Problems related to the proposed bill for the certification of psychologists in Ohio. Personal communication.
Many of OSPA’s historical documents and other noteworthy materials have been housed at the Archives of American Psychology at The University of Akron since the Fall of 2009. This project was a combined effort of Dr. Kate Bobak Lavik (who would become OSPA Historian during this time), Dr. Caven Mcloughlin, and Dr. Rob Kubick, all from Kent State University, as well as Dr. David Baker, who (at that time) was a Professor of Psychology and served as the Margaret Clark Morgan Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology at The University of Akron. Among the many documents that visitors to the Archives may view is the original copy of Dr. Perry Clark’s manuscript, reprinted here with his permission.